Data Base Compilation Methodology
Terrorist Attacks and Handling Terrorism and Extremism
The recent incidents of terrorist attacks have clearly demonstrated that the threat of terrorism and violent extremism persists in Indonesia. In the past, the terrorist attack model took the form of large-scale attacks and targeted large casualties per incident. In recent years the threat landscape of radicalism and terrorism in Indonesia has changed. This is demonstrated by the emergence of new patterns in the spread of radicalism and terrorist attacks. The spread of radical ideas is now targeting almost various groups of society. Middle class and educated groups previously believed to be immune to radical ideas are now often involved in calling for incitements that lead to calls for terror. The widespread use of communication and information technology seems to be a catalyst for the spread of radical ideas in Indonesia. In fact, radicalism is also starting to target early age groups.
On the other hand, acts of terrorism have also begun to show changes in the character and pattern of attacks. In recent years, terrorist attacks are often carried out by self-radicalized lone wolves and who are part of the more disorganized and hierarchical terrorist cells than in the past.
This problem shows that there are weaknesses in the approach to preventing and eradicating terrorism and radicalism that have been prevailing so far. First, there is still a lack of awareness and understanding of the importance of data and in the formulation of policies and strategies for eradicating terrorism. It is important to strengthen the capacity of policy makers and the public in using data to understand the new landscape of terrorism and radicalism. Second, that efforts to eradicate terrorism and radicalism are still too dominated by the State. The state needs to embrace and empower various elements of civil society in efforts to eradicate terrorism. Third, the current legal framework is deemed inadequate. It is necessary to improve the legal framework in order to strengthen the resilience of the state and society in facing the threat of terrorism and radicalism.
The Habibie Center believes that efforts to prevent and deal with terrorism must be inclusive with the involvement of various elements of government and society. In addition, THC considers that policies related to the prevention and handling of terrorism must be based on accurate data and information as well as adequate academic studies. As a concrete form of this commitment, in early 2017, The Habibie Center started the Countering Terrorism and Violent Extremism in Indonesia program: Towards Inclusive and Data-based Framework. The ultimate goal of this program is to increase the resilience of the Indonesian people to the threat of radicalism, violence triggered by extremism and terrorism. One of the strategies THC uses is to provide a database on terrorism in Indonesia. THC considers that the use of this database can support the policy making process and formulate strategies for dealing with extremism and terrorism in Indonesia
2. Build a database of attacks and handling of terrorism and extremism
The main component in this program is to build a database that can be accessed by the public at large. This decision was based on the consideration that there was no comprehensive and periodically updated data related to attacks and counter-terrorism and extremism in Indonesia which could be accessed by the wider public. So far, the National Police has issued data on suspected terrorists and terrorist organizations which are published every month. However, the data is limited to the list of suspected terrorist entities or individuals, not data on terrorist attacks or data on the handling of terrorism and extremism.
So far, the only comprehensive data available in Indonesia and accessible to the public is the National Violence Monitoring System (SNPK) database belonging to the Coordinating Ministry for Human Development and Culture (Kemenko PMK). Unfortunately, the data has not been updated since early 2015. In addition, terrorist attacks are only recorded as a form of violence, namely: terror attacks, but do not specifically place them as a type of violence with certain issues underlying them.
This program seeks to fill in the data gaps mentioned above. The data base built is a combination of recording the events of terrorist attacks and handling terrorism and extremism. The measures referred to here include prevention, deradicalization and reintegration.
It is very important to record the handling of terrorism and extremism systematically. This recording can be used for, for example, knowing what has been / is being done, knowing the distribution of roles between stakeholders, strengthening coordination and synergy between stakeholders, strengthening counter terrorism strategies / programs by the government and civil society, and evaluating whether the interventions are being carried out. in accordance with the character of the problems related to terrorism and extremism in different regions. In the end, analysis of these data can be used to see whether an area is vulnerable to extremism or terrorism.
- What's in the database?
- Data on terrorist attack incidents and handling of terrorism and extremism issues as well as various features that enable online analysis.
- module on the use of terrorism and extremism databases and efforts to address them.
- Publication of analysis of data reinforced by field research.
- Information about civil society networks engaged in the prevention and response of terrorism and extremism.
- What can be done with the database?
The construction of a data base for attacks and handling of terrorism and extremism can provide an overview of the level of terrorist attacks, the distribution of terrorist attacks, the forms of attacks, their impact, and the issues behind the attacks. This database can also provide information on the handling of terrorism and extremism, both prevention and post-attack handling. Specifically, this database can be used for:
- Supporting stakeholders related to efforts to combat extremism and terrorism that are data-based and more inclusive.
- Provide adequate information sources to set priorities, design strategies / programs related to counter terrorism.
- Provides comprehensive information to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of strategies / programs implemented in countering terrorism
- Opening up wider opportunities for civil society to participate and contribute to joint efforts to combat extremism and terrorism
3. Scope of data base
Terrorism has been a world concern since the early 20th century. In the 1937 Convention for The Prevention and Suppression of Terrorism, terrorism is defined as crimes against the state. In the next development, terrorism is seen as an attack on humanity. This definition makes terrorist attacks included in the category of gross human rights violations which are committed as a widespread / systematic part. These attacks were aimed directly at the civilian population, directed more at the souls of innocent people (Public by innocent). According to Prof. M. Cherif Bassiouni, an expert on International Criminal Law, that it is not easy to establish an identical definition that can be universally accepted so that it is difficult to control the meaning of terrorism. Meanwhile, according to Prof. Brian Jenkins, Ph.D., Terrorism is a subjective view, which is based on who sets limits at certain times and conditions. Until now, there is no standard limit to define what is meant by terrorism.
In Indonesia, the government carried out counter-terrorism efforts by issuing Law No. 1 of 2002 which was later updated with Law No. 15 of 2003. This law became the starting point for the institutionalization of counter-terrorism-related businesses. Several special institutions were formed to carry out this mission, for example forming a special anti-terror detachment within the Indonesian police force, and then this was followed by the formation of the National Counterterrorism Agency (BNPT) through Presidential Regulation Number 46 of 2010 which was later updated with Presidential Decree Number 12 of 2012 .
Although the institutionalization of counter-terrorism in Indonesia has been going on since 2002, the standard definition of terrorism is not stated in the law. Therefore this program uses definitions from other sources, particularly to define terrorism.
From the various definitions issued by various institutions, this program uses the definition of terrorism issued by the UN office of the high commissioners of Human Right. By this agency, terrorism is defined as an act or trial where:
- The act (a) was intentional to take the hostage; or (b) Is intended to cause death or serious injury to one or more members of the general population or segments; or (c) Uses deadly or serious physical violence against one or more members of the general population or segments; and
- Actions taken or attempted with the intention of: (a) Generating a state of terror in the general public or its segments; or (b) Requesting a government or international organization to do or not do something; and
- Such action is consistent with: (a) The definition of a serious offense in national law, which applies for the purpose of complying with international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism or with Security Council resolutions relating to terrorism; or (b) All elements of serious crimes defined by national law.
Besides, U.N. Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms While Countering Terrorism, defines incitement to commit terrorism, is "Acts that are deliberate and against the law by distributing messages to the public with the intention of inciting acts of terrorism which are carried out openly. or the message contains the intention to encourage acts of terrorism that cause harm to society if the act has been committed.
In Indonesia, terrorism attacks are classified as a criminal act, the handling of which is specifically regulated through the law on the eradication of criminal acts of terrorism (Law Number 15 of 2003). In article 6 of the law, the crime of terrorism is defined as Anyone who deliberately uses violence or threats of violence who:
- creates an atmosphere of terror or fear towards people in a widespread manner;
- causing mass casualties, depriving independence, or loss of life and property of others; and / or
- causes damage or destruction to Strategic Vital Objects, the environment, Public Facilities, and / or international facilities
Dealing with terrorism
The handling of terrorism referred to in this program refers to the countermeasures of terrorism as stated in Presidential Regulation No. 46/2010. In the Presidential Decree, counterterrorism is stated to cover prevention, protection, deradicalization, prosecution, and preparation of national preparedness.
4.Data base structure
As previously mentioned, this database will record the events of terrorism attacks and the handling of terrorism and extremism. Therefore, every event captured in this data base is immediately classified as an attack incident or an incident handling terrorism.
In general, this data base consists of four major parts, namely:
- Section 1. General information: event type, time, location and id. This section covers terrorist attacks and dealing with terrorism and extremism.
Part 2. The event of a terrorist attack
- Actors, impacts, and interventions during the event
- Target, shape, type of attack, and weapon
Part 3. Dealing with terrorism
- Actors and handling targets
- Forms and handling results
- Section 4. Summary and sources of information. This section covers terrorist attacks and dealing with terrorism and extremism.
5.Set the data source and data processing method
As previously mentioned, the basis for recording in this database is events, both terrorist incidents and their handling. This data base was also built with several disaggregated variables, starting from the time of the event, the location, the perpetrators, to the impacts arising from the event. In addition, updating the data base is expected to be real time or at least not having a gap that is too large with the time the event occurred. These two things directly affect the source of the information that will be used to compile the data base.
With the aforementioned characteristics, the information source that will be used to build this data base must also have the following criteria:
- Information sources must contain information about the events of terrorist attacks or the handling of issues of terrorism and extremism
- The information submitted makes it possible to record (coding / data entry) sorted
- The information has accuracy about the facts of the event
- Have a regular publication schedule
- Widely accessible to the public
Several data sources can be used based on the criteria mentioned above, for example: reports released by the government or security forces, reports released by NGOs, survey results, printed mass media and online media. Each of these data sources has several advantages and disadvantages, for example reporting accuracy, reporting coverage area, ease of access, and duration of time or continuity of report updating. These deficiencies can be overcome by using a combination of various data sources.
Pros and Cons of Using Types of Data Sources
As mentioned above, one of the potential data sources that can be used to build a data base on terrorism and its handling is the mass media because it has several advantages compared to other data sources.
The use of mass media (print) as a data source has been initiated by several previous programs. In Indonesia, one such program is the National Violence Monitoring System (SNPK) which has been implemented by the Coordinating Ministry for PMK since 2012. The SNPK program uses daily local newspaper articles to record incidents of violence. In the data base, media articles are used to record 30 variables related to violent incidents, including: time of incident, place of incident, perpetrator and victim, types and forms of violence, impact, weapons used, and interventions to stop the incident. the violence.
As mentioned in the SNPK program, using local media articles as a source of information has advantages and disadvantages. Some of these advantages include:
- Local media reports on incidents that occur every day through articles published to the public at large. This reporting system allows the media to provide a more accurate picture of the intensity of the incident than the survey method.
- The local media records and reports incidents that occur due to various issues, has a wide coverage area, and has more reporting space than the national media.
- The description of the incident can be found because the local media also reports the chronology of the incident and its impact.
- This is a document that can be accessed by the public.
Besides these advantages, the use of printed newspapers also has several weaknesses, including:
- Reporting incidents, not the root of the problem. This results in the analysis that can be done is limited to trends, distribution, characteristics, and others. A deeper analysis of the root cause of an incident should be done using other methods.
- Some of the obstacles in collecting printed newspaper archives often occur due to weak archives, even in the editorial office of the media concerned. In addition, poor print quality also makes the available files sometimes unusable because they are blurry and unreadable
- The coverage area of some media is limited to urban areas so there is reporting bias. In addition, reporting bias can also occur due to editorial policies and journalists' ability to make objective and balanced reporting. This kind of bias can be overcome by using multiple media as sources for a region
The current development of information technology has greatly influenced changes in search patterns and presentation of information for the public. This change has also affected the mainstream media, which initially focused on providing information through print media to on-line media. This drastic change cannot be avoided due to various considerations, such as the speed of conveying information and reducing production costs, especially for the printing components that must be borne by the media company. On-line media has great potential to be used as a data source because it has several advantages, including:
- On-line media has a huge potential as a source of data due to the fast nature of its reporting, thereby reducing the time lag (gap) between events and reporting. The speed of reporting allows the construction of basereal time data, which in turn allows fast response from stakeholders.
- The use of on-line media is also cheaper in terms of costs because it requires shipping costs, cuts the extraction process from print files to electronic files, simplifies the coding and data entry process, and requires fewer resources compared to processing data from print media .
- The sustainability of the data collection in the future is more guaranteed because the costs for maintaining the database and updating the data are relatively cheaper.
- The issue of urban bias (coverage area), which is one of the credibility issues of online media, does not have a major effect on this data collection because attacks and handling of terrorism are usually reported by various media, both at the national and regional levels.
With the aforementioned considerations, this program decided to use information from on-line media as the main data source for the preparation of this terrorism attack and handling database.
Determines how to process information
Some of the methods that were tried in the early stages of this program were manual data entry and coding and coding using big data technology. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. To conduct national data collection in Indonesia, manual coding requires a large team so that it also directly impacts high costs. In addition, manual coding also requires high consistency, both when a coder is coding multiple events, or when multiple coders are coding an event. Consistency is a challenge in itself in a large team.
Weaknesses as mentioned above can be overcome by the method of recording using a big data machine. Logarithms built into the machine are able to maintain consistency in recording. Even so, considering the development of news through on-line media, the logarithm built must always be updated to ensure that various information does not escape monitoring and / or there is no duplication (double coding) of an incident. In addition, this system still requires non-machine monitoring, although it is very limited. At least there should be a small team that is in charge of monitoring the data base whose job it is to provide input for updating big data machines.
The selection of data sources as mentioned above also directly affects the tools that will be used to process them. As previously mentioned, several considerations for the method of processing the source into a comprehensive database are based on the main considerations that: (1) enable the recording of events to be accurate and disaggregated; (2) overcoming gaps that are too long between the timing of the incident and the reporting; and (3) requires relatively low cost so that the sustainability of data collection is guaranteed. With these considerations in mind, this program uses a big data engine as the main data collection method combined with human labor.
The method used for data collection was web scrapping (Figure 1). Web Scrapping is a method of retrieving data from a website by retrieving the content from a website. After this process is carried out, the required information extraction is carried out in relation to the creation of the Terrorism and Counter-terrorism Database.Figure 1. Web Scrapping Process
Information is retrieved based on a predetermined template, namely:
- News publication time
- News synopsis
- Editor's name or initials
- News content
After all news content can be extracted, then the data will be entered into the database. This process is carried out periodically depending on the frequency of the website / news portal updating news.
The information extraction method used is to analyze the crawling data that has been stored in the database. The information analyzed is the headline, time of news publication, and news content. First of all, the Named Entity Recognition (NER) method is used (Figure 2) to conduct entity recognition of each word in the title and news content. This introduction will later become a pattern that will be used to make conclusions about something. Basically NER will output an introduction to:
- Person (attacker or handling actor)
- The place / location of the incident of a terror attack or handling of terrorism
- Organizations that are affiliated with terrorists or actors in the handling of terrorism
- Quantity (nominal information in the article, for example: the number of victims, or words that refer to the nominal "several, dozens, tens, etc.")
- Time (date, month, and year of attack or response)
- And other things needed to strengthen the analysis of the system
The information above will be extracted globally, regardless of the events associated with each entity. The entity will become valuable when it is given the sentence formation pattern and post tagging of each word.
NER initially extracted the words Agus as Person and Jakarta as Place. But if we enter the pattern that when Person + Verb + Connectivity + Place has a certain value, then the advanced extraction can be obtained from the sentence above.
In addition, the word order will also be used as a formulation, which is semantically formed when the NER process is running. The reference for the formation of this NER is based on a previously formed corpus. Where this corpus will always be updated from time to time along with variants of sentence structure which can cause changes in the output of this process itself.Figure 2. The NER process
From the wording and entity that was successfully obtained by NER, then patterns can be formulated to carry out the Extraction Event. Event Extraction is a method of extraction of certain information (in this case attacks and handling) based on several predetermined variables so that it can output an event / event that occurs from an article.
In addition to Event Extraction, Information Extraction is also applied to complete the boost information needed when an event occurs.
The principles determine the time and quantity
Specifies the date of the event:
Write down the dates of important events to take place, first as a way to determine the number of events in an article and the second is to sort chronologically by the date of each month's events. We will easily find the date of the event in selected articles, but sometimes we will find it difficult to determine when the event occurred. Following are the principles relating to determining the date of an event occurring both in the Data Collection stage and the later Data Coding process.
- The Event Date on the data collection template is the date the event occurred, NOT the date of the newspaper. For example, if a newspaper published on 29/03/1998 says that an event occurred 'last night', then the date of that event would be 28/03/1998.
- If the date of the event is not mentioned in any article and the time period is not mentioned at all, then give the date of the event one day before the earliest source date.
- If several sources mention a specific event date and 1 source mentions a different event date then use the date cited by the most sources.
- If one source mentions a specific event date and another source mentions a different event date then use the earlier date.
- If the newspaper mentions only the month (without a specific date), then use the 15th of the month mentioned. For example: If the newspaper says that the event took place last June , then use June 15 as the date of the event .
If the article mentions an uncertain date, for example: a few days ago, or 2 weeks ago, etc., then you can use the following principle:
- Some time ago = 1 day before the article
- A few days ago = 2 days ago
- A few weeks ago = 2 weeks ago (article date minus 14)
- A month ago = 1 month ago (article date minus 1 month), for example: article date June 7 means May 7 event date
- A few months ago = 2 months ago, for example the date of the article June 7 means the date of the events of April 15 (here we do not use 2 months subtraction, so we take the date of the middle of the month) li >
- Articles written based on reports of arrests by security forces or the results of the trial (if no articles regarding the incident were found) and no information was found about the date of the incident, use the date 1 day before the arrest or before the trial li >
The principle of determining the number of events:
The basis for recording this database is events, so it is very important to determine how to record an event and what criteria must be considered to determine that an incident / event becomes one event or more than 1 event. A newspaper article may very well report one, but it is possible that the article contains more than one event. Therefore the following principles are used to determine an event. However, we will determine the number of incidents based on 4 (four) things, namely actor / actor, issue, date of incident, and location of the event . Apart from these three things, the type of violence must also be considered in determining the number of incidents. Two or more separate incidents / events CAN be counted as one event, as long as it satisfies all of the following four conditions:
- Same date : Two or more incidents / events must occur within 24 hours.
- Same issue : Issues disputed by both parties must be the same.
- Same date : At least one of the actors in both events must be the same actor, where 'actor' refers to specific individuals, not groups , organization or affiliation.
- Same date : The location scope is called the same if it occurs within 1 province
Determining the Number of Actors / Actors and Impacts
The data base consists of fields containing the code and the amount. It is necessary to pay attention to CODE and AMOUNT used both using NUMBERS (0,1,2,3 ... etc.).
Code ; is a code used to fill in the affiliate field of the perpetrator / actor, the interventionist, the result of the intervention, the weapon, the type of building, the issue and the form of violence.
- Code 0 means none ; This code is used to declare 'Nothing'. This code is only used if there is no interference, no weapons, no building type. Code '0' cannot be used on the affiliation of actors / actors, issues and forms of events , because at least an event has one actor / actor on sides 1 and 2, has one issue and one form.
- Code 1 means other ; is used if the code provided in the data base and the coding key does not match the information you read in the article and you must write an explanation every time using code 1.
- Code 99 means unclear ; This code is only used if the information in the article is not clear. This code is only used for the type of actor, the interventionist, the result of the intervention, the weapon, the type of building, the issue and the form of the incident.
Number ; field which contains the number is the number of perpetrators / actors, the number of victims of violence (killed, injured, obscene, kidnapped), the number of female victims (killed, injured, obscene, kidnapped), the number of buildings affected.
- In the number of actors ; the number 0 does not apply because every event must involve at least 1 pelau / actor. If the article states that the number of actors is not clear, the principle of minimum numbers is used, namely: 1.
- a. In the impact section, the number of '0' (zero) indicates the number of victims / damage “NO”
- “NOT CLEARLY” on the part of the victim has two possibilities, namely: (1) it is not clear whether there were victims or not; and (2) it is clear that there are victims but it is not clear how many. For the first possibility, null or blank is used to state whether there are victims or not. For example, an article reports “... it is not known whether there were any victims in the incident the explosion of a homemade bomb. " For the second possibility, fill in the number 1 (using the principle of the minimum number) to state that it is clear that there are victims but it is not clear how many . For example the article reports "... it is not known how many people were killed in the event of a bomb attack."
In determining the number, if the newspaper mentions the words a few, dozens etc. or range then convert the sum into numbers. We use this lowest number principle when it has no effect on the Forms of Violence. The following are general provisions for estimating amounts:
Total Estimation Table
Words mentioned in the article What to fill in the AMOUNTfield Some 2 Dozens 11 Dozens 20 Hundreds 100 Thousands 1000 Or Range is mentioned, for example 15-20 The LOWEST Number
6.Definition of variables in the data base
|Section 1. General information: type, time, location and event id|
|No||Variable||Sub-Variable||Definition / Description|
|See section 4. Operational definitions|
|2||Time||Date, Month and Year||
Time of the attack is the date, month and year of the terrorist attack.
Time of handling is the date, month and year of the counter-terrorism activity
The location of the attack is the location where the incident occurred.
Location of handling is the location where counter terrorism activities are held
|4||Event ID||& nbsp;||
Is a 5 digit number to distinguish one incident from another incident. Each event will be assigned an id number consisting of:
|Part 2. The terrorist attack incident|
The terrorist attack perpetrator's affiliation, namely
Perpetrators are individuals and / or groups of individuals who were involved in the attack when the incident occurred.
|6||The Impact of the Attack||Category Impact of the attack, namely:||Is a physical impact that occurs due to an attack / act of terrorism, not a psychological impact or long-term impact|
|Killed||Is the impact of loss of life (number)|
|Injuries||The impact of minor injury to physical disability (Total)|
|Damaged buildings||Is the impact of damage to buildings (Number)|
|Kidnapped victim||Is the impact or victim of kidnapping (Number)|
|Others||Is the impact of damage other than physical or building, such as vehicles, livestock, agricultural land, etc. (description)|
|By gender||Is a sex breakdown of victims|
|This is a type of building that is the target of a terrorist attack|
|7||Intervention||Category of Intervention is:||Is a person / party who came when the attack / act of terrorism occurred at that location and tried to stop / handle it|
|0. None||No person / party intervened|
|1. Others||Is when an intervention occurs, and the intervener is named in the data source, but does not fit into one of the categories listed|
|2. Densus 88||Are members / troops of Special Detachment 88 who are passing and / or are on duty and / or specifically deployed to the location of the attack / act of terrorism|
|3. Police||Is a member / police force who is passing through and / or on duty and / or specifically deployed to the location of the terrorist attack / act|
|4. TNI||Is a member / TNI troop who is passing and / or is on duty and / or specifically deployed to the location of the terrorist attack / act|
|5. Citizens||Are local residents (including those who are passing through) the location of terrorist attacks / acts|
|8||Intervention Results|| The results of the intervention, namely:
||Is the result of efforts to stop / handle terrorist attacks / acts carried out by interventions|
|9||Target Target||The target category for the target is:||Is an individual / group of individuals and related facilities that were directly targeted for attacks / acts of terrorism when the incident occurred|
|1. Others||Is an attack / action aimed outside the predefined categories|
|2. Government||Is an attack / action directed against government offices and employees (including government facilities).|
|3. Business||Is an attack / action directed against the office or individual of a company|
|4. Police||Is an attack / action directed against police offices and personnel (including police facilities).|
|5. Military||Is an attack / action directed against military offices and personnel (including military facilities)|
|6. Religious Figures / Facilities||Are attacks / actions directed against religious places and figures|
|7. Public Transportation||Is an attack / action aimed at systems, facilities, and land transportation modes, such as buses and trains|
|8. Airport||Is an attack / action directed against airports and aircraft. In this category military facilities are not included|
|9. Maritime Facilities||Is an attack / action directed against ports and ships (among others, passenger ships, fish carriers, tankers, and cruise ships). In this category military facilities are not included|
|10. School||Is an attack / action against school / educational facilities as well as teachers and students|
|11. Media||Is an attack / action against media offices and journalists|
|12. Embassy||Is an attack / action against embassy offices in Indonesia (including consulate offices, etc.) and their diplomatic staff. This category includes UN offices and facilities, international donor agencies and their staff|
|13. Hospital||Is an attack / action against hospital facilities, patients, doctors, and other medical personnel|
|14. Indonesian citizens||Is an attack / action against individuals or the public in general and their property or facilities. In this category attacks are carried out at places, such as markets, malls, tourist attractions, and roads as well as in residential areas|
|15. Foreign Citizen||Is an attack / action against an individual or group of individuals of a foreign nationality where the location of the attack is in public and commercial places (such as roads, cafes, tourist attractions, malls, and other entertainment venues)|
|16. Political Parties||Is an attack / action directed against the offices and members of a political party (including political party events, such as campaigns)|
|10||Attack Forms||Forms of terrorist attacks, namely:||Are the actions taken in a terrorist incident / attack|
|1. Others||Are other actions that are not in the category of attack|
|2. Murder||Is an action whose main purpose is to kill a specific victim / target|
|3. Piracy||Is the act of taking over control of the control of a vehicle (for example, aircraft, ships, cars, etc.) for the benefit of an individual or group of individuals|
|4. Kidnapping||Is an act of forcibly taking away a person or more from a certain place which is then placed in a place under his or another person's control. Even though they do not commit physical violence, kidnapping is included in the category of violence because of its nature that robs the victim of freedom|
|5. Robbery||Is an act to seize or take the property of a person / group / organization by force, the results of which are used for the purposes of terrorism|
|6. Bombing||Is an act / terrorist attack carried out by an individual or group of individuals which comes from an energetically unstable material that undergoes rapid decomposition and releases pressure waves that cause physical damage to the surrounding environment.|
|7. Gun abuse||Is the act of physically attacking using a weapon against an individual or group of individuals|
|8. Persecution without weapons||Is the act of physically attacking without using a weapon against an individual or group of individuals|
|9. Attacks on facilities / infrastructure||Is a terrorist act or attack on property (buildings or other facilities) which results in damage to the property|
|11||Attack Type||Types of terrorism-related attacks, namely||Is the background that becomes the basis for the perpetrator to carry out acts / terrorist attacks|
|1. Not clear||It is not clear the issue / background of the attack|
|2. Religion||Is a terrorism attack based on religious issues / problems|
|3. Politics||Is a terrorist attack based on political issues (power, position, separatism)|
|4. Drugs||Is a terrorist attack based on the issue of narcotics (such as: business competition)|
|5. Personal||Terrorism attacks based on personal / individual interests|
|99. other||There have been terrorist attacks based on issues other than provided code|
|12||Weapons||Weapons category in terrorism attacks, namely:||Is a weapon used by the perpetrator in a terrorist incident / attack|
|0. None||& nbsp;|
|1. Others||Are weapons that do not fall into the predetermined categories|
|2. Organic Firearms||Is a weapon that releases projectiles which are made legally|
|3. Assembled Firearms||Is a weapon that releases projectiles which are made illegally|
|4. Bomb||Is an energetically unstable material that undergoes rapid decomposition and releases pressure waves that cause physical damage to the surrounding environment.|
|5. Vehicles||Are various types of transportation used by perpetrators in terrorist acts / attacks|
|6. Biological Weapons||Is a weapon produced from poison containing biological substances|
|7. Chemical Weapons||Is a weapon containing chemical toxins in the form of liquids, aerosols and vapors|
|8. Sharp Weapons||Is a weapon / tool that has been or deliberately sharpened to injure someone|
|9. Blunt Weapons||Is a weapon / tool that has no parts that have been / deliberately sharpened to injure someone|
|10. Api||Is a weapon that is capable of producing heat and light and easily causes something to burn|
|Part 3. Dealing with terrorism|
The affiliation of actors handling terrorist acts, namely:
Actors are individuals and / or groups of individuals involved in counter terrorism activities
Actor affiliation is the general identity of the perpetrator based on the affiliation of the terrorism handling activity.
|14||Target Handling||The categories that are targeted in the handling of terrorism, namely:||Are actors who participate in / become targets / receive counter-terrorism activities|
|1. Others||Actors other than those listed|
|2. Suspected Terrorists||Individuals suspected of being affiliated with terrorist groups|
|3. Former Terrorists / Combatants||Individuals who have been affiliated with a terrorist group|
|4. Government Officials||Government (institution or person) other than the security apparatus|
|5. Ormas / Community||Community organizations that are not youth groups or student organizations|
|6. Students / School Students||Individuals or groups who are still enrolled in higher education|
|7. General Public||Individuals or groups that are not / not radicalized, do not work for government agencies, are not students / school students, and are not part of community / religious organizations|
|15||Handling Type||1. Prevention||Is an activity held with the aim of preventing acts of terrorism or radicalization|
|2. Action||Is an activity held as a reaction to radicalization or the spread of terror that has occurred|
|3. Recovery||Is an activity carried out to rehabilitate perpetrators of acts of terrorism|
|16||Form Handling||1. Others||Other activities aimed at preventing terrorism and radicalism|
|2. Seminar / Workshop||Seminars / Workshops with themes related to the prevention of terrorism and radicalism|
|3. Training||Training with themes related to the prevention of terrorism and radicalism|
|4. Provision of Funds / Credit||Funds / credits provided to individuals / groups who are vulnerable to being exposed to terrorism and radicalism, to help them open business opportunities to improve their economies|
|5. Job Creation||Opening job opportunities for individuals / groups who are vulnerable to being exposed to terrorism and radicalism, to help them open business opportunities to improve their economy|
|6. Arrest||Arrests by security forces of perpetrators of acts of terrorism and radicalism. Specific Forms of Handling for Action Type Handling|
|7. Special Operations||Special operations carried out by security forces to prevent the occurrence / development of acts of terrorism and radicalism Special Forms of Treatment for Types of Handling of Actions|
|17||Handling Results||The categories of results of handling terrorism, namely:||Is the result achieved after the handling of terrorism activities against the target for handling was carried out|
|1. Others||Any handling results that are not listed in|
|2. Caught||The actor has been arrested alive and well|
|3. Killed||The actor has been arrested, but is dead|
|4. Wounds||The actor has been arrested, but is still injured|
|5. Not Working||The actor was not successfully captured|
|6. Awareness||The actor realizes that his actions and understanding are wrong and leaves him|
|7. Skills Improvement||Actors gain more skills in generating sources of economic income|
|8. Capital Ownership||An actor has the capital to open a business, either on his own or because of a gift from another party|
|Section 4. Summary and sources of information|
|18||Event Summary||Terrorist Attacks||Is a brief description of the attack / action that occurred. The description contains information regarding the chronology of the incident, the specific location, the issue and form of the attack, and its impact|
|Addressing terrorism and extremism||Is a brief description of the activities to deal with terrorism being carried out. The description contains information about the details of activities, specific locations, actors, targets, forms of activities, and results of handling|
|19||Media Source||& nbsp;||News link which is a source of information from various online media reporting on events of terrorist attacks or handling terrorism and extremism|